Landscape Geochemistry (Critical Zone Research, Multi-media geochemistry)
Today “critical zone research”, the study of element behaviour at the Earth surface, is the western equivalent to the Russian “landscape geochemistry”. The critical zone is the near surface environment where the complex interactions of lithosphere (the rocks), pedosphere (the soils), hydrosphere (ground and surface water), biosphere (plants and animals) and the atmosphere (rain, snow, “climate in general) take place. The critical zone sustains all life on Earth.
NGU has started as early as in the late 1980ies with multi-media geochemical surveys – at that time still for mineral exploration (Bølviken et al., 1986). As early as 1993 the “Kola Ecogeochemistry Project” combined 4 different sample materials to better understand the environmental impact of the Russian nickel industry on the vulnerable arctic environment (Reimann et al., 1998). Since then quite a number of studies comparing the geochemistry of many different sample materials from the local to the continental scale have been carried out and help to better understand the human impact on the Norwegian environment.
- BØLVIKEN, B., BERGSTROM, J., BJÖRKLUND, A., et al. 1986. Geochemical Atlas of Northern Fennoscandia, Scale 1:4,000,000. Mapped by Geological Surveys of Finland, Norway and Sweden with Swedish Geological Co. and the Geological Survey of Sweden. Nordic Council of Ministers, 19 p. and 155 maps.
- KASHULINA, G., REIMANN, C., FINNE, T.E., HALLERAKER, J.H., ÄYRÄS, M. AND CHEKUSHIN, V.A., 1997. The state of the ecosystems in the central Barents Region: scale, factors and mechanism of disturbance. Science of the Total Environment 206: 203-225.
- KASHULINA, G., REIMANN, C., FINNE, T.E., CARITAT, P. de & NISKAVAARA, H., 1998. Factors influencing NO3 concentrations in rain, stream water, ground water and podzol profiles of eight small catchments in the European Arctic. Nitrogen, the Confer-N-s, First International Nitrogen Conference (Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands, 23-27 March 1998), Proceedings volume, Elsevier, Amsterdam: 559-568 & Environmental Pollution, 102, S1: 559-568.
- KASHULINA, G. & REIMANN, C., 2001. Sulphur in the arctic environment (1): results of a catchment-based multi-medium study. Environmental Pollution 114: 3-19.
- REIMANN, C., ÄYRÄS, M., CHEKUSHIN, V., et al., 1998. Environmental Geochemical Atlas of the Central Barents Region. NGU-GTK-CKE Special Publication, Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim, Norway.