A lot of geological knowledge is necessary to construct and build tunnels. Photo: Coulorbox
Prior to development it may be necessary to map the area with regard to, for instance, risk for landslides, occurrence of mineral resources, or deposits of natural uranium that may cause radon exposure in buildings.
Different geological and geophysical methods may be used in mapping.
Several kinds of building materials have a geological source, such as concrete consisting of, among others, lime and sand, backfill consisting often of gravel and aggregate, paint containing several kinds of minerals, and nails or armouring containing minerals such as iron and aluminium.